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Aliran-aliran dalam Filsafat Pendidikan
  • Filsafat pendidikan merupakan terapan dari filsafat umum, maka salam membahas filsafat pendidikan akamn berangkat dari filsafat. Dalam arti, filsafat pendidikan pada dasarnya menggunakan cara kerja filsafat dan akan menggunakan hasil-hasil dari filsafat, yaitu berupa hasil pemikiran manusia tentang realitas, pengetahuan, dan nilai.
    Dalam filsafat terdapat berbagai mazhab, aliran-aliran, seperti materialisme, idealisme, realisme, pragmatisme, dan lain-lain. Karena filsafat pendidikan merupakan terapan dari filsafat, sedangkan filsafat beraneka ragam alirannya, maka dalam filsafat pendidikan pun kita akan temukan berbagai aliran, sekurang-kurnagnya sebanyak aliran filsafat itu sendiri.
    Brubacher (1950) mengelompokkan filsafat pendidikan pada dua kelompok besar, yaitu filsafat pendidikan “progresif” dan filsafat pendidikan “ Konservatif”. Yang pertama didukung oleh filsafat pragmatisme dari John Dewey, dan romantik naturalisme dari Roousseau. Yang kedua didsari oleh filsafat idealisme, realisme humanisme (humanisme rasional), dan supernaturalisme atau realisme religius. Filsafat-filsafat tersebut melahirkan filsafat pendidikan esensialisme, perenialisme, dan sebagainya.

    Berikut aliran-aliran dalam filsafat pendidikan:

    1. Filsafat Pendidikan Idealisme
    Filsafat idealisme memandang bahwa realitas akhir adalah roh, bukan materi, bukan fisik. Pengetahuan yang diperoleh melaui panca indera adalah tidak pasti dan tidak lengkap. Aliran ini memandang nilai adalah tetap dan tidak berubah, seperti apa yang dikatakan baik, benar, cantik, buruk secara fundamental tidak berubah dari generasi ke generasi. Tokoh-tokoh dalam aliran ini adalah: Plato, Elea dan Hegel, Emanuael Kant, David Hume, Al Ghazali.

    2. Filsafat Pendidikan Realisme
    Realisme merupakan filsafat yang memandang realitas secara dualitis. Realisme berpendapat bahwa hakekat realitas ialah terdiri atas dunia fisik dan dunia ruhani. Realisme membagi realitas menjadi dua bagian, yaitu subjek yang menyadari dn mengetahui di satu pihak dan di pihak lainnya adalah adanya realita di luar manusia, yang dapat dijadikan objek pengetahuan manusia.
    Beberapa tokoh yang beraliran realisme: Aristoteles, Johan Amos Comenius, Wiliam Mc Gucken, Francis Bacon, John Locke, Galileo, David Hume, John Stuart Mill

    3. Filsafat Pendidikan Materialisme
    Materialisme berpandangan bahwa hakikat realisme adalah materi, bukan rohani, spiritual atau supernatural.
    Beberapa tokoh yang beraliran materialisme: Demokritos, Ludwig Feurbach.

    4. Filsafat Pendidikan Pragmatisme
    Pragmatisme dipandang sebagai filsafat Amerika asli. Namun sebenarnya berpangkal pada filsafat empirisme Inggris, yang berpendapat bahwa manusia dapat mengetahui apa yang manusia alami.
    Beberapa tokoh yang menganut filsafat ini adalah: Charles sandre Peirce, wiliam James, John Dewey, Heracleitos.

    5. Filsafat Pendidikan Eksistensialisme
    Filsafat ini memfokuskan pada pengalaman-pengalaman individu. Secara umum, eksistensialisme menekankn pilihan kreatif, subjektifitas pengalaman manusia dan tindakan kongkrit dari keberadaan manusia atas setiap skema rasional untuk hakekat manusia atau realitas.
    Beberapa tokoh dalam aliran ini : Jean Paul Satre, Soren Kierkegaard, Martin Buber, Martin Heidegger, Karl Jasper, Gabril Marcel, Paul Tillich.

    6. Filsafat Pendidikan Progresivisme
    Progresivisme bukan merupakan bangunan filsafat atau aliran filsafat yang berdiri sendiri, melainkan merupakan suatugerakan dan perkumpulan yang didirikan pada tahun 1918. Aliran ini berpendapat bahwa pengetahuan yang benar pada masa kini mungkin tidak benar di masa mendatang. Pendidikan harus terpusat pada anak bukannya memfokuskan pada guru atau bidang muatan.
    Beberapa tokoh dalam aliran ini : George Axtelle, william O. Stanley, Ernest Bayley, Lawrence B.Thomas, Frederick C. Neff.

    7. Filsafat Pendidikan esensialisme
    Esensialisme adalah suatu filsafat pendidikan konservatif yang pada mulanya dirumuskan sebagai suatu kritik pada trend-trend progresif di sekolah-sekolah. Mereka berpendapat bahwa pergerakan progresif telah merusak standar-standar intelektual dan moral di antara kaum muda.
    Beberapa tokoh dalam aliran ini: william C. Bagley, Thomas Briggs, Frederick Breed dan Isac L. Kandell.

    8. Filsafat Pendidikan Perenialisme
    Merupakan suatu aliran dalam pendidikan yang lahir pada abad kedua puluh. Perenialisme lahir sebagai suatu reaksi terhadap pendidikan progresif. Mereka menentang pandangan progresivisme yang menekankan perubahan dan sesuatu yang baru. Perenialisme memandang situasi dunia dewasa ini penuh kekacauan, ketidakpastian, dan ketidakteraturan, terutama dalam kehidupan moral, intelektual dan sosio kultual. Oleh karena itu perlu ada usaha untuk mengamankan ketidakberesan tersebut, yaitu dengan jalan menggunakan kembali nilai-nilai atau prinsip-prinsip umum yang telah menjadi pandangan hidup yang kukuh, kuat dan teruji.
    Beberapa tokoh pendukung gagasan ini adalah: Robert Maynard Hutchins dan ortimer Adler.

    9. Filsafat Pendidikan rekonstruksionisme
    Rekonstruksionisme merupakan kelanjutan dari gerakan progresivisme. Gerakan ini lahir didasarkan atas suatu anggapan bahwa kaum progresif hanya memikirkan dan melibatkan diri dengan masalah-masalah masyarakat yang ada sekarang. Rekonstruksionisme dipelopori oleh George Count dan Harold Rugg pada tahun 1930, ingin membangun masyarakat baru, masyarakat yang pantas dan adil.
    Beberapa tokoh dalam aliran ini: Caroline Pratt, George Count, Harold Rugg.

    ***
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